Problem Solving, in Sternberg, Robert J. und Funke, Joachim (Hrsg.): The Psychology of Human Thought: An Introduction, Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, 2019, S. 155–176. https://doi.org/10.17885/heiup.470.c6672

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ISBN 978-3-947732-33-3 (PDF)
ISBN 978-3-947732-34-0 (Softcover)
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Joachim Funke

Problem Solving

  1. The term problem solving describes the process to overcome barriers between a given and a goal state.
  2. Complex problems differ from simple problems by the degree of background knowledge needed for the solution process, the sheer number of processes to run, and the time needed for completion.
  3. In addition, complex problems are characterized by complexity (many variables), connectivity (relations between variables), intransparency (missing information), dynamics (changes over time), and polytely (multiple goals).
  4. Problem solving as a process occurs in different idealized phases: target elaboration, hypothesis formation, planning and decision making, monitoring, and evaluation.
  5. Important theories of problem solving come from the Gestaltists, from action theory, and from information processing theories.
  6. Methods for assessment rely on self-reports, behavioral data, and physiological measures.