Wilhelm, Oliver und Schroeders, Ulrich: Intelligence, in Sternberg, Robert J. und Funke, Joachim (Hrsg.): The Psychology of Human Thought: An Introduction, Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, 2019, S. 255–275. https://doi.org/10.17885/heiup.470.c6677

Identifier (Buch)

ISBN 978-3-947732-33-3 (PDF)
ISBN 978-3-947732-34-0 (Softcover)
ISBN 978-3-947732-35-7 (Hardcover)




Oliver Wilhelm, Ulrich Schroeders


  1. We began this chapter by briefly reviewing milestones of intelligence research and juxtaposed competing models of individual differences in intelligence.
  2. We described contemporary accepted models on the structure of intelligence in which fluid and crystallized intelligence are the most important factors.
  3. We argued for an extension of the use of the term intelligence to all tasks essentially reflecting individual differences in maximal cognitive effort.
  4. In the second section, we presented prototypical tasks for fluid and crystallized intelligence.
  5. We discussed a number of weaknesses in contemporary intelligence models and argued that - from a pragmatic viewpoint - the measurement of intelligence is still a success story.
  6. We discussed several efforts to improve intelligence, a class of interventions that should interest not only individuals but also society as a whole.