‘Okhti’ Online. Spanish Muslim Women engaging online Jihad – a Facebook case study.

  • Claudia Carvalho (Author)
    Tilburg School of Humanities, Kamer D 235 PO Box 90153 5000 LE Tilburg Netherlands (visiting address)

Identifiers (Article)


Virtual reality is becoming increasingly relevant as an online space where Muslim women gain a new religious and social role by accepting the expression of Jihad through violence. Until now, the study of online radicalization in Spain has been focusing in the male perspective therefore it is important to analyze Muslim women online Jihadism participation. Facebook due to its easy, cheap access and interactive way of connecting with other people through a virtual channel is growing in popularity among Muslim women in Spain.

As so, it is important to examine how women understand Jihad in a general manner, how they live and enact Jihad on Facebook, how do they embrace the Jihadist recruitment online and most importantly how to they transfer this role from online to offline reality.


Salafi-Jihadism, online jihad, online ritualization, virtual sisterhood, Hijra, Facebook