After World War I, membership in the League of Nations represented an important step for the British Dominions on the road to foreign policy independence. The internationalism of the League of Nations was not a purely political phenomenon, but also had a social dimension. In particular, the Geneva based Secretariat of the League of Nations evolved into a hub of liberal internationalism. Benjamin Auberer examines these networks by investigating the careers of five employees of the League of Nations from Australian and New Zealand and thus contributes to a global history of the League of Nations and its bureaucracy.
Europäischer Buchmarkt und Gelehrtenrepublik: Die transnationale Verlagsbuchhandlung Treuttel & Würtz, 1750–1850
Vers 1800, la librairie et maison d’édition Treuttel & Würtz était une plaque tournante des échanges européens. Tandis que la maison d’édition visait, avec les publications de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ou de Germaine de Staël, un public d’élite transculturel, la librairie fournissait des clients dans toute l’Europe grâce à ses succursales à Strasbourg, à Paris et à Londres, et à son vaste réseau commercial. Pour la première fois, cette étude examine le fonctionnement et l’influence de l‘entreprise Treuttel & Würtz et les replace dans le contexte historique et culturel: de l’organisation du commerce du livre et des coopérations entre libraires à l’émergence de nouvelles disciplines académiques, comme les philologies modernes, au début du xixe siècle, en passant par l’histoire des bibliothèques. Tous ces domaines se caractérisaient par un marché transnational que Treuttel & Würtz servait d’une manière que l’on peut qualifier de littérature mondiale pratiquée.
The publishing house and bookshop Treuttel & Würtz was a hub of European exchange par excellence around 1800. While the publishing house targeted a transcultural elite audience with publications by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe or Germaine de Staël, the bookshop supplied customers throughout Europe with its branches in Strasbourg, Paris and London as well as its widely ramified trade network. For the first time, this study examines the working and influence of the publishing bookshop and embeds it in the cultural-historical context: from the organisation of the book trade and the cooperation between booksellers to library history and the emergence of new academic disciplines such as the modern philologies at the beginning of the 19th century. All these areas were characterised by a transnational market, which was served by Treuttel & Würtz in a way that can be described as practised world literature.
To Jerusalem and Beyond: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Latin Travel Literature, c.1200-1500
With the expansion of trading routes, pilgrimage, and missionary endeavours in the 13th century, Latin travel literature emerged as a distinctive genre like never before. To highlight the importance of this genre, this volume outlines and explores current and future research trajectories with a focus on Latin travel literature from c. 1200–1500. Combining digital, codicological, literary, philological, and anthropological approaches the volume analyses the ways in which these texts were produced, distributed, received, read, and how they can be interpreted. It argues for the importance of re-evaluating these texts and revisiting their contents in light of new methodological and theoretical approaches.
The series “Russia and the Asia-Pacific” explores political, economic, social, cultural and environmental interactions of the Russian Far East within its Asian-Pacific context as well as with the Russian capital in the past and present. Its first volume addresses from a multidisciplinary perspective notably the following questions: How were and are directives from a centre thousands of kilometers away perceived and implemented by actors in this region? To which extent was and is the centre successful or how did or does it fail in integrating a region as far away from the centre as the Russian Far East in its state structures? How have notions of “centre” and “periphery” changed over time?
Funerary Landscapes of the Late Antique “oecumene”: Contextualizing Epigraphic and Archeological Evidence of Mortuary Practices. Proceedings of an International Conference in Heidelberg, May 30–June 1, 2019
This volume presents the first pan-Mediterranean panorama of Late Antique mortuary practices, combining and contextualizing an abundant dataset of archaeological and epigraphic evidence. In 17 contributions, a group of international specialists discusses funerary evidence from 14 Late Antique landscapes, in order to show the high diversity of microregional and local customs in funerary cultures as well as the significance of global trends. In this volume various new methodological approaches are applied: the materiality of epitaphs and tombs, their visibility, their accessibility, their perception, their setting within shifting spatial environments, as well as their crucial role within social practices. Therefore, this book fundamentally reshapes our understanding of mortuary habits and the commemoration of the dead during the transitional phase of the Long Late Antiquity.
„Stets korrekt und human“: Der Umgang der westdeutschen Justiz mit dem NS-Völkermord an den Sinti und Roma
This book deals with a neglected area of the judicial reappraisal of the Nazi regime: the handling of the crimes against the Central and Eastern European Roma minority in West German NSG trials. It provides a comprehensive insight and overview, informs about the legal prerequisites of the West German judicial special path, and presents the course of proceedings and the roles of the defendants, witnesses and judicial personnel for a number of proceedings. The focus is on the joint trial on the “Zigeunerkomplex” (“Gypsy Complex”, 1958–1970), which was planned as a major trial alongside the first Auschwitz trial and which, contrary to its goal, had little impact and is now forgotten.
Il presente volume esamina la vecchiaia e l’invecchiamento come appaiono nelle epoche premoderne e, in particolare, nel medioevo. Combinando prospettive provenienti dalla gerontologia da una parte e dalle discipline umanistiche, in particolare la ricerca storica, dall’altra, si cerca di aprire la strada a nuove conoscenze. I contributi gerontologici propongono teorie e metodi che sono fondamentali per analizzare gli sviluppi storici, mentre quelli umanistici offrono evidenza storica attraverso casi di studio.
This book investigates old age and ageing in premodern times, with a special focus on the Middle Ages. Perspectives from gerontology and the humanities, and above all from history, are combined to provide novel insights. The gerontological articles explain key theories and methods that are relevant for the analysis of historical developments, while the contributions from the humanities offer historical evidence complementary to these inputs.
Von Aachen bis Akkon: Grenzüberschreitungen im Mittelalter. Festschrift für Hubert Houben zum 70. Geburtstag
Pubblicato in occasione del 70° compleanno di Hubert Houben, questo volume si concentra sull’oltrepassare dei confini come uno dei temi cari al festeggiato. Prendendo come punto di partenza un concetto di confine come costruzione sociale, le autrici e gli autori affrontano casi selezionati di scavalcamento di confini spaziali, culturali e legali durante il Medioevo. La complessità e la multiperspettività che ne derivano riflettono metodi e tradizioni di ricerca diversi, che insieme rivelano un ampio spettro di approcci possibili al tema dell’attraversamento dei confini.
Published on the occasion of Hubert Houben’s 70th birthday, this volume focuses on border crossings as one of the topics dear to the jubilarian. By starting from a concept of borders as a social construct, the authors look at selected cases of transcending spatial, cultural and legal boundaries in the Middle Ages. The resulting complexity and multi-perspectivity reflects different research methods and traditions, revealing a broad spectrum of possible approaches to the topic of border crossings.
Carl Stamitz (1745–1801): Biographische Beiträge – Das symphonische Werk – Thematischer Katalog der Orchesterwerke
Carl Stamitz (1745-1801), Johann Stamitz's eldest son, is well known for his works, as his compositions can be found on numerous recordings and concert programmes in today's music scene. Musicologists though do not pay the same attention to this composer, who came from the ranks of the court musicians of the Electoral Palatinate. The dissertation by Friedrich Carl Kaiser (1931-2008), submitted in 1962, is still the only monograph that systematically deals with his life and his orchestral music, which was a major part of his creative work. It is a standard work that rightly appears in every bibliography on the subject. Up to now it has only been possible to view the compulsory typescript copies of the dissertation, which are distributed among a few libraries and which differ in detail from one another. The reason for this is the somewhat unusual genesis of the text, as Kaiser repeatedly made changes and additions to his Stamitz monograph over a long period of time. The present edition, which also includes Kaiser's personal copy from his estate, now provides musicology researchers with a reliable edition of this fundamental text.
Die Wurzeln der Kontaktlinguistik: Zur Entstehung des Sprachkontaktparadigmas in der Sprachwissenschaft unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rolle der Romanistik
Thinking about language contact and language mixture has been part of the European-Western preoccupation with language from the very beginning. Starting with Plato in the fourth century B.C., it is for a long time an unexcited reflection, until the perspective changes radically in the 19th century: the normality is suddenly gone, contact and mixture become first a research taboo and only a little later a serious research focus, from which a separate discipline, contact linguistics, emerges. This book tells for the first time the history of the study of language contact up to the threshold of the 20th century and shows how critical-historiographical studies can help to classify and advance current debates (e.g. in creole studies).
The long history of cosmology did not simply end in the specialised discipline of the physical study of the universe. Rather, the times we live in are characterised by a "cosmological restlessness", which indicates that today central questions about the world and our position in it demand new answers. A look at the history and diversity of cosmology reveals a "form of expression" that is not limited to the function of a worldview (a picture of the world), but can pursue many other purposes and inscribes itself in complicated ways in the intellectual, theoretical, but also political, ethical and practical contexts of its time. This volume portrays this in many case studies, ranging from prehistory to present-day Earth system science.
The lecture notes give an overview of modern cosmology: After introducing the necessary concepts from general relativity, the FLRW-class of cosmological models is discussed, with emphasis on dark energy. Cosmic structure formation, the necessity of dark matter and the interplay between statistics and nonlinear fluid mechanics are treated in detail. The physics behind cosmological observations that have led to the standard model of cosmology is explained, in particular supernovae, the cosmic microwave background and gravitational lensing.
Representations of female Israeli soldiers are a popular subject in photography. However, a notable controversial imparting exists concerning gender and identity: heroic depictions of female Israeli soldiers as shown by the Israeli military in their official representations are in contrast to portraits which are either sexualized or appear as a form of criticism on military service as such and the responsibility of young women soldiers towards the state and the people.
This analysis focusses on aspects of the visual language and aesthetics in the context of the cultural history discourse of Zionism, as well as on stereotypes such as the ›beautiful Jewess‹ in European painting since the 18th century. The results offer a unique contribution to Jewish studies by combining methods of gender studies and art history, as well as visual studies.
This volume presents the religious, architectural, and textual background of Vãbāhā, one of the 16 main monasteries of Patan, located in one of the three royal cities of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. The history of the Buddhist monastic courtyard and its objects is presented along with 42 inscriptions, dating from 1596 CE to 2021.
Französische Lebenswelten in der Residenz: Akteure, Räume und Modalitäten französisch-sächsischer Verflechtung im augusteischen Dresden, 1694‒1763
À l’époque augustéenne (1694–1763), la ville de Dresde, résidence saxonne, devient un centre culturel du Saint-Empire. De nouveaux réseaux de personnes et de nouvelles voies commerciales mettent en place des transferts de connaissances, parmi lesquels les liens avec la France jouent un rôle prépondérant. Cette étude se penche donc sur le grand nombre de Françaises et de Français qui, à cette époque, séjournent dans la capitale saxonne pour des périodes plus ou moins longues. Les conditions préalables en France, les modalités sociales et enfin l’action française à la cour et dans la ville sont examinées à l’aide de nombreuses sources issues d’archives françaises et allemandes. Il en résulte un portrait centré sur les acteurs et à multiples facettes du transfert culturel franco-saxon.
In the Augustan era (1694–1763), the Saxon residence city of Dresden developed into a cultural centre of the Holy Roman Empire. New networks and trade routes set knowledge transfers in motion, with connections to France taking on a prominent role. This study therefore focuses on the large number of French people who came to the Saxon capital for short or long periods of time. The study includes an examination of the French prerequisites of these journeys, the social modalities and finally the French activities at court and in the city based on numerous sources from German and French archives. In this way, Christian Gründig draws a multifaceted, actor-centred picture of Franco-Saxon cultural transfer.
Tooltips for Theoretical Physics: Concepts of Modern Theoretical Physics, Scales and Mathematical Tools
Theoretical physics is commonly taught in separate lectures, illustrating the physics behind the great constants of Nature: Electrodynamics and the speed of light, quantum mechanics and Planck’s constant, thermodynamics and Boltzmann’s constant, and finally relativity with Newton’s constant as well as the cosmological constant. In these lecture notes, the concepts of theoretical physics are illustrated with their commonalities, and phenomena are traced back to their origin in fundamental concepts.
Statistical physics provides the microscopic theory for thermodynamic macroscopic properties of a physical system. These lecture notes introduce the necessary concepts of statistics and analytical mechanics for equilibrium thermodynamics with partition functions. They cover classical and quantum statistics, and treat advanced topics such as Langevin dynamics, the Fokker-Planck equation and phase transitions. Many systems like ideal classical and relativistic gases are worked out in detail.
General relativity is the theory of the structure and dynamics of spacetime. These lecture notes provide an introduction into the concepts of differential geometry, in particular pseudo-Riemannian geometry, and discusses the ideas behind the construction of a gravitational field equation. Exact solutions to the field equation for highly symmetric spacetimes, i.e. black holes, FLRW cosmologies and gravitational waves, are worked out. Advanced topics that are covered include Lie derivatives and the Killing equation, the derivation of the field equations from variational principles, and the formulation of field theories on curved spacetimes.
Das Schloss als Zeichen des Aufstiegs: Die Ausstattung von Vaux-le-Vicomte im Kontext repräsentativer Strategien des neuen Adels im französischen 17. Jahrhundert
Louis XIV's absolutist rule, which began in 1661, was preceded by a period of intensive building activity of ascended state and financial elites in France. Among the most important of these estates, which were mostly located in the Parisian countryside, was the château of Vaux-le-Vicomte (built for Nicolas Fouquet), which serves as a case study for the interaction between social mobility and art. This volume focuses on the decoration of the château and garden, created under the direction of Charles Le Brun between 1657 and 1661, and places it in the context of comparable decoration projects of the time.
The topic of slavery is largely under-represented in the historiography of Nepal. This source book, aware of this disparity and wishing to encourage future studies on the topic, provides the reader with editions, translations and a study of selected documents and legal texts of Nepal from the period of the eighteenth to the early twentieth century. These sources are concerned with such different aspects of slavery as donations, transactions, bondservitude, forced labour, emancipation, and law.
“The four elements”: earth, fire, water, and air are on the one hand essential for life, on the other hand they can become life-threatening. Various natural disasters make our dependence on the elements tangible: e.g. we need water to live (drought causes us and other creatures to die of thirst), too much water is also not good (floods). Similarly for fire (we need warmth but fear fires), for air (we need clean air to breathe but fear air pollution), and for earth (we need solid ground under our feet but fear erosion and earthquakes). Hope and fear: times four!
In the volume “The Four Elements” edited by Joachim Funke and Michael Wink, scientists from different disciplines – theology, biology, medicine, geology, and psychology – deal with the topic and describe their respective specialist perspectives.
Corradino di Svevia (1252–1268) | Konradin (1252–1268): Un percorso nella storia, nel diritto e nel mito
La mitizzazione di Federico II e del nipote Corradino, iniziata quando erano ancora in vita ad opera dei loro sostenitori e aderenti, si è mantenuta inalterata nel corso del tempo sia in Germania sia Italia meridionale, e qui con esiti sorprendenti. Corradino era infatti ricordato nei primi decenni del Novecento nel piccolo centro di Aliano in provincia di Matera, dove Carlo Levi visse durante il Fascismo da confinato politico e dove dell’ultimo Svevo si parlava come di un eroe nazionale e si piangeva la morte.
A prescindere dalla pietà umana, che scatta soprattutto quando la morte colpisce un adolescente, lo sfortunato tentativo di Corradino di far valere i suoi diritti ereditari sul Regno di Sicilia continua ad alimentare il dibattito storiografico, perché fornisce uno spiraglio di intelligibilità sui processi politici allora in corso non solo nell’area dell’Impero romano-germanico, di cui faceva parte l’Italia centro-settentrionale, ma anche in quella delle formazioni politiche che con esso si trovarono di volta in volta ad interagire, tra cui il Regno di Sicilia. Il volume è frutto del convegno tenutosi nel 2018 presso l’Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II in occasione del 750° anniversario dell’esecuzione di Corradino e dei suoi nobili compagni.
Many contemporary periodisation schemes have their roots in Europe, reflecting particular national religious or historiographical traditions and teleologies. As part of the colonial encounter they have been translated into new temporal authenticities in the Americas, Asia and Africa. Culturally determined as they are, these periodisation schemes are begging for systematic comparison in order to identify their contextual specificity and contingency. An interdisciplinary and transregional approach allows to work out categories of historical analysis that go beyond nation-bound interpretative patterns. In considering case studies from different parts of the world, the aim of this volume is to uncover some of the dynamics behind particular uses of periodisation schemes, as concepts for ordering the past.
Nation, Militär und Gesellschaft: Die französische Nationalgarde in Rennes, Lyon und Paris, 1814–1848
Issue de la Révolution, la garde nationale a durablement marqué l’opinion publique et les institutions françaises. Pour la monarchie, restaurée en 1814, elle était une force d’ordre indispensable et occupait une place centrale dans la représentation politique des Bourbons. En même temps, elle était devenue symbole de maturité politique et de distinction sociale. Elle conférait une identité bourgeoise et un certain statut social. Axel Dröber se penche sur l’histoire de la garde nationale de Rennes, de Lyon et de Paris sous la Restauration et la monarchie de Juillet. Il étudie les différentes formes d’organisation des citoyens armés et leurs relations avec l’administration et le gouvernement. L’accent est mis sur l’héritage de la Révolution française, qui a marqué la société jusque tard dans le xixe siècle et a eu une influence durable sur la discipline et l’obéissance au sein des troupes d’ordre du pays.
The National Guard, which emerged from the Revolution, left a lasting mark on French public life and institutions. For the monarchy restored in 1814, it was an indispensable upholder of order and occupied a central place in the Bourbons' external political representation. At the same time, it had become a sign of political maturity and social distinction. It conveyed bourgeois identity and social status, on which the following regime of Louis-Philippe was also built. Axel Dröber traces the history of the National Guard of Rennes, Lyon and Paris during the Restoration and the July Monarchy. He examines the organisational forms of the armed citizens and their relationship to the administration and government. The focus is on the legacy of the French Revolution, which shaped society well into the 19th century and had a lasting influence on discipline and obedience within the country's forces tasked with upholding order.
„Daraus kündten auch die Graeci lärnen“: Die Bemühungen des Martin Crusius (1526–1607) um ein Luthertum der Griechen
In search of subsidies for the publishing of his Greek and Latin oeuvre, the Corona Anni, Professor Martin Crusius of Tübingen (1526-1607) pointed out in a letter to Johan Papius, court physician at Ansbach, that it might teach even the Greeks to preach the word of God truly. At this point in time, Crusius could look back on nearly thirty years in which he had exerted himself body and soul for the dissemination of the Lutheran teaching among the Greek-speaking Christians. His 'mission' had begun when his former student Stephan Gerlach had been chosen to travel from the university town in Württemberg to Constantinople as embassy preacher in 1573. Up until his death, Crusius pursued his project of establishing the essentials for a Greek Lutheranism and sending these – at times on adventurous paths – to their recipients.
The production of glass was one of the high technologies of the early modern period. At a heat of around 1500 degrees, mixtures of sand, lime and vegetable, wood or potash were transformed into greenish, crystal-clear or colorful marvels in the glassworks of Europe. Its aesthetic and material properties-transparency, workability, and durability-made glass a coveted material that was still the preserve of the elite in the 16th century and did not become an affordable mass product until the second half of the 18th century.
The volume Glass in the Early Modern Period pursues an interdisciplinary approach. It takes its starting point in the conditions of glass production in early modern glassworks, the high consumption of resources, and the resulting social conflicts. The volume focuses on the various historical forms of use, glass as an object of collection, and its allegorical meaning in painting. At the same time, the volume deals with the analysis and preservation of glass objects from a scientific and conservation perspective and with the presentation of baroque glass from a museum perspective. In all of this, a close connection to the court culture of the European nobility is apparent, who acted as pioneers, patrons and, not least, buyers, users and collectors of the glass objects. In this way, many of the luxury objects have been preserved to this day.
Characterised by the multiplicity and diversity of research and methodology, the European tradition of Semitic linguistics has always supported fieldwork and highly valued the data obtained in this way as it allows to create an interesting dynamic for linguistic studies itself. In the spirit of this tradition and to uphold it, the present book is a collection of articles based on data gathered primarily during field research expeditions. The volume is divided into two parts—Studies on various specific linguistic issues and Texts containing previously unpublished transcriptions of audio recordings in Arabic dialects, Maltese and Jibbali/Shehret.
Der „Welsche Gast“ des Thomasin von Zerklaere: Neue Perspektiven auf eine alte Verhaltenslehre in Text und Bild
In 1215/1216, Thomasin von Zerklaere composed his Welscher Gast (“The Italian Guest”), the earliest comprehensive book of court etiquette written in German. Up until the Early Modern Age, the work was frequently copied and widely disseminated. Its uniqueness lies not least in the fact that it was, from early on, transmitted together with an extensive cycle of images. This volume brings together studies from Art History, Literary Studies and Musicology into the sources, the didactic concept, the transmission of images, and the reception of Thomasin’s poem as well as into how it might be employed in present-day German language and literature classes. It proposes to replace the author-centered approach to the Welscher Gast with an approach that consistently focuses on the history of its transmission.
What is Palliative Medicine / Palliative Care? What stresses are patients and their relatives exposed to in incurable and advanced disease situations? How can appropriate comprehensive treatment and support be managed? How can a decision to limit or continue therapeutic measures at the end of life be justified?
This script is intended to provide medical students and all interested parties with an insight into the necessities and possibilities of comprehensive palliative medical support and to be of assistance for reference and preparation for the palliative medicine examinations in QB 13 and the state examination.
The study ventures into a topic that has been so far largely neglected in film studies: the ‘gypsy’ phantasm on the big screen. It reconstructs the history of ‘gypsy’ representations in film since the birth of the medium providing a systematic film-theoretical analysis of their aesthetic and social functions. Based on a corpus of over 150 works from European and US cinema, it is shown that ‘gypsy’-themed feature films share the pattern of an ‘ethno-racial’ masquerade, irrespective of the place and time of their origin. The author thus expands the research, concentrated until now in the field of literature, with another art form, film, opening up new dimensions of (popular) cultural antigypsyism.
Definire i processi storici che caratterizzarono l’Europa centro-orientale in epoca medievale e moderna come deviazione o involuzione a partire dal modello e dai risultati dell’Europa occidentale, ovvero come palese arretratezza della prima rispetto alla seconda, appare riduttivo. Le più recenti indagini consentono di superare una visione dualistica delle sorti politiche, economiche e sociali delle due parti del Continente. Gli studi di carattere comparativo possono mettere in luce non solo le similitudini, ma anche le particolarità che definirono le relazioni politiche, economiche e sociali nell’Europa medievale e moderna. Questo volume ha l’obiettivo di presentare alcuni risultati delle più recenti ricerche, focalizzando l’attenzione su alcuni territori e i loro rapporti economici, sociali e culturali con la Penisola italiana, e di offrire nuovi spunti di riflessione.
It appears reductive to define the historical processes that characterised central and eastern Europe in medieval and modern times as a deviation or involution from the starting point of the western European model and outcomes, or as patent backwardness of the former compared to the latter. The most recent research moves beyond a dualistic view of the political, economic and social fortunes of the two parts of the continent. Comparative studies can highlight not only the similarities, but also the peculiarities that defined political, economic and social relations in medieval and modern Europe. This book presents recent research, focusing on several territories and their economic, social and cultural relations with the Italian Peninsula, and offers thought-provoking new insights.
„The Past through Narratology“ proposes a fresh approach to various types of texts from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Starting from a broad definition of what a text can be – ranging from hagiographic narratives and maps to archaeological remains – this book proposes narrativity and narratology as frameworks for exploring sources and exchanging opinions. The various contributions in this volume investigate how late antique and early medieval authors and movements used narrative as a vehicle for their ideas and how they operated in literarised spaces. At the same time, this book also examines how we as researchers construct narratives about our periods of study.
Erinnerung im Umbruch: Die Fortsetzung, Drucklegung und Ablösung der »Grandes chroniques de France« im 15. und frühen 16. Jahrhundert
À partir du xiiie siècle, les »Grandes chroniques de France«, pièce maîtresse de l’historiographie française, furent régulièrement augmentées et mises à jour. Au xve et au début du xvie siècle, le thème central de cette historiographie proche du pouvoir était la guerre civile entre Armagnacs et Bourguignons (1407–1435), et la guerre de Cent Ans, qui y était associée. Le développement historiographique était étroitement lié à la lutte de différentes parties pour la souveraineté de l’interprétation de ces conflits. Cette revendication est analysée ici pour la première fois dans un contexte où les »Grandes chroniques« ont, certes, été continuées en tant que récit historiographique, mais dans lequel, en même temps, de nouvelles œuvres d’inspiration humaniste les ont progressivement remplacées. L’étude reconstruit de nombreuses étapes de l’évolution des »Grandes chroniques« et traite également de textes créés dans leur environnement et qui n’ont guère été étudiés jusqu’à présent. Pour ce faire, manuscrits et ouvrages imprimés sont pris en compte de la même manière.
The study traces the development of historiography surrounding the rulers in France in the 15th and early 16th centuries. In the first two parts, the focus is on the continuation and printing of the “Grandes Chroniques” in the 15th century up to the replacement of this leading text by the new, humanistically influenced works of Robert Gaguin and Paulus Aemilius. Along the way, numerous stages of development are reconstructed. Moreover, many historiographical works that have hardly been studied so far but were influenced heavily by the “Grandes Chroniques” are also discussed. For a long time during that period, the main topic of French historiography was the French Civil War (1407–1435) and the associated conflict with the English kings. The struggle of various parties for interpretative sovereignty over those decades therefore had a decisive influence on the development of French historiography in the 15th and early 16th centuries, which will be examined in the third part.
„... der Augenblick ist mein und nehm ich den in Acht“: Daseinsthemen und Lebenskontexte alter Menschen
Themes of existence of elderly people are considered in the context of different : different social classes, different residential contexts, different degrees of independence are understood as central components of the differentiated life-worlds. It is shown how significant the subjectively experienced “task character of life” as well as the experience of being needed by others are for satisfaction and a sense of meaning. In addition, risk factors for life satisfaction are identified: these include, above all, isolation and a pronounced need for care. The experience of old people is not solely determined by vulnerability; it also speaks for mental growth and coping skills.
Livio Odescalchi, nipote di papa Innocenzo XI: Interessi famigliari e strategie di ascesa nella stagione dell’antinepotismo
Livio Odescalchi (1652–1713), nipote di Innocenzo XI, pagò in gioventù il prezzo della politica antinepotista del pontefice, il quale scelse di negargli ogni incarico ufficiale. Negli stessi anni, Livio dovette oltretutto sottostare al controllo opprimente dello zio, suo tutore testamentario – una condizione infelice al punto che, nella cultura del tempo, la sua figura venne notoriamente associata a simbolo di sventura. Nonostante ciò, il giovane seppe gettare le basi per una strategia di ascesa economico-sociale che avrebbe dato i suoi frutti in seguito. Morto Innocenzo XI, ebbe inizio infatti un periodo di riscatto, costruito sull’accumulo di onorificenze e possedimenti, investimenti finanziari, committenze e commerci d’arte, mecenatismo, feste mondane e reti internazionali.
Il volume, frutto della tesi di dottorato di Roberto Fiorentini (Aprilia 1987–Washington 2019), prende in esame ambedue le fasi della vita di Livio Odescalchi, analizzandole alla luce di una notevole quantità di documenti d’archivio, una parte dei quali completamente inediti.
Livio Odescalchi (1652–1713), nephew of Innocent XI, paid the price in his youth for the pope’s anti-nepotism policy, who chose to deny him any official position. During the same period, Livio had to submit to the oppressive control of his uncle, his testamentary guardian – an unhappy situation that, at the time, caused him to be considered a symbol of misfortune. In spite of this, the young man was able to lay the foundations for a strategy of economic and social ascent that would later bear fruit. After the death of Innocent XI, a period of compensation began, built on the accumulation of honours and possessions, financial investments, commissions and art trades, patronage, social celebrations, and international networks.
This book, based on Roberto Fiorentini’s doctoral thesis (Aprilia 1987 – Washington 2019), examines both phases of Livio Odescalchi’s life, analysing them in the light of a considerable quantity of archival documents, some of which are completely unpublished.
Decorum und Mammon im Widerstreit? Adeliges Wirtschaftshandeln zwischen Standesprofilen, Profitstreben und ökonomischer Notwendigkeit
Entrepreneurial activity by nobles was highly debated in the European Early Modern period. Generally, it was considered socially inappropriate. Nevertheless, profit-oriented activities of the nobility were an economic necessity and an everyday matter. The volume traces this ambivalence, using European examples between 1600 and 1900 from various ranks of the nobility and different fields of economic activity. It shows that the involvement of the nobility in European economic processes should not be underestimated. The book opens up an underrepresented field of research for a more in-depth examination.
Bausteine einer Korpusgrammatik des Deutschen: Bd. 2: Determination, syntaktische Funktionen der Nominalphrase und Attribution
„Bausteine einer Korpusgrammatik des Deutschen“ (“Building blocks towards a corpus grammar of German”) is a new series presenting corpus linguistic studies conducted at the Leibniz Institute for the German Language in Mannheim (IDS). It aims to capture the diversity and variability of German grammar at a high resolution, and at the same time to ensure the study results are verifiable. This first issue contains an introduction to the series, and four texts designed as chapters of a new grammar: 1) main aspects of word formation, 2) the formation of adverbs, 3) strong vs. weak inflection in sequences of attributive adjectives and 4) the order of attributive adjectives. In addition, the issue provides access to an interactive database on attributive adjectives.
Von Preußen lernen? Die preußische Monarchie im Spiegel französischer Reformdiskurse am Ende des Ancien Régime
La guerre de Sept Ans a été un désastre pour la renommée de la France. S’est alors engagée une discussion intensive sur des idées de réforme afin que soit restaurée la primauté de la monarchie française dans le système international des États et que le pays soit sauvé de la faillite. L’autopromotion de Frédéric II a suscité un intérêt particulièrement vif du public français pour la Prusse. Mais dans quelle mesure l’État prussien, perçu comme un modèle de réussite, pouvait-il servir de référence dans ce débat sur les réformes? Le livre nous montre par le biais de quels médiateurs et les moyens par lesquels le transfert de connaissances de la Prusse vers la France s’est opéré au cours des dernières décennies de l’Ancien Régime. Les limites de ce transfert y sont également expliquées, ainsi que la fonction que le renvoi à la Prusse a effectivement occupée au sein des discussions autoréférentielles sur la »régénération« de la monarchie française.
With the end of the Seven Years' War, a period of intensive search for reform ideas began in France an attempt to restore France's supremacy in the international state system and save the monarchy from bankruptcy. The particularly lively interest of the French public in Prussia raises the question of the extent to which Frederick II's state, which was regarded as successful, has served as a model in this reform debate. The book shows by which ways, carriers and means the transfer of knowledge from Prussia to France took place at the end of the Ancien Régime and what function the reference to Prussia actually assumed within self-referential French discussions.
Marktstrategien der Kurienbanken: Die Geschäfte der Alberti, Medici und Spinelli in Deutschland (1400–1475)
With their branch networks and partners, the Florentine banks dominated international monetary transactions of the 15th century. Thanks to their presence in the main commercial centres of the continent, the merchant bankers from Tuscany dominated the cashless processing of large transfers of money from all over Europe to the Roman Curia. Kurt Weissen examines how curia bankers, such as the Alberti and the Medici, connected Germany to this payment system via Bruges and Venice. He analyses the role played by the establishment of branches in Lübeck, Cologne, Basel and Constance and the importance of cooperation with German merchant companies.
Visual media have played a key role in the genesis of antigypsyism since the early modern period. This interdisciplinary anthology examines the central motifs and semantics of "Gypsy" images in various forms of representation such as literature, visual art, photography, postcards, opera, theatre, comics, film and computer games. Particular attention is paid to connecting lines and interrelationships. The contributions uncover the content-related, temporal, geographical and media-specific manifestations of one of the most powerful stereotypes in European cultural history. To this day, antigypsyist imaginations have a negative impact on the positioning of Sinti and Roma in European societies.
Le roi, son favori et les barons: Légitimation et délégitimation du pouvoir royal en Angleterre et en France aux XIVe et XVe siècles
Dans la recherche, le rôle politique du favori et la nature de sa relation avec le roi ont souvent été obscurcis par le fait que, dans les discours du haut et du bas Moyen Âge, la proximité particulière avec le souverain était régulièrement exprimée dans le langage de l’amour et dans des gestes de proximité physique et d’intimité. Ainsi, l’impression est née que le roi, par inclination homosexuelle, accordait une influence excessive à son favori – aux dépens des barons, qui revendiquaient, eux aussi, une part du pouvoir.
Dans l’esprit d’une »histoire culturelle de la politique«, le présent ouvrage reconsidère la figure du favori, la rend compréhensible et tangible dans sa signification au-delà du cas individuel. Il met en évidence le caractère constructif des modèles modernes de perception du désir sexuel et souligne l’importance de l’inconduite sexuelle comme argument politique dans le discours médiéval.
At the end of the Western Middle Ages, the new notions of the legitimacy of royal power and its exercise were made more visible by the presence of royal favourites whose figure should be reconsidered. The present study links the reproach of sexual misconduct as a political argument in medieval discourse to medieval ideas about royalty and government, opening new perspectives of a cultural history of politics in the Later Middle Ages.
Ein Haus für Herkules: Das fürstliche Modellhaus der Residenzstadt Kassel – Architektur und Modellpraktiken im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert
Dedicated to housing courtly architectural models, Landgrave Karl founded the so-called Modellhaus at the beginning of the 18th-century, an unusual building which went on to become one of the most admired sights of its time. The collection included, most importantly, a monumental model of the most famous of all the Kassel artworks, namely the statue of Hercules overlooking the extensive Karlsberg gardens. Through recently discovered plans, files, and contemporary travel memoirs, this book retraces the story of this unique building and its collection which lasted almost a century, guiding us through Berlin, Saint Petersburg, and Paris, to reveal the continuing importance of models.
Tradition und Traditionsverhalten: Literaturwissenschaftliche Zugänge und kulturhistorische Perspektiven
In Western cultural history, 'tradition' is one of the central concepts to describe processes of reception and their impact. Especially in literary studies, traditions are often claimed by stating, for example, that a particular text stands 'in the tradition' of another text. Nevertheless, coherent theoretical reflection is often lacking. This volume approaches the general question "What is tradition?" and the more specific question "How can one adequately speak about literary traditions?" by theorizing the premises of the concept and by discussing its theoretical capacity on the basis of case studies from various constellations throughout literary and cultural history.
Studium Generale is a series of lectures at Heidelberg University open to all members of the university and any other interested members of the public. The lecture series has a general topic that academics from different fields take up in individual presentations from the angle of their discipline.
“Resources: raw materials, data, human beings ...” was the topic of the Studium Generale of Heidelberg University in the 2019 summer semester. The collection of essays in this volume arose in the context of this lecture series. They represent the broad range of different disciplinary approaches to the topic in academic research und in societal practice.
Marseille, Montpellier und das Mittelmeer: Die Entstehung des südfranzösischen Fernhandels im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert
Comment les réseaux de marchands du sud de la France ont-ils contribué à l’essor commercial de Marseille et de Montpellier aux xiie et xiiie siècles? Comment les villes de l’intérieur des terres, en fournissant des biens, des capitaux et des personnes, ont-elles permis l’expansion du commerce méditerranéen des grandes villes côtières? Dans cette étude, les fondements du commerce à longue distance sont non seulement expliqués par l’établissement des États croisés au Levant mais ils sont aussi explorés directement à leur source, à savoir les circuits commerciaux actifs dans l’arrière-pays, aux alentours des villes portuaires. Des analyses microhistoriques de familles marchandes, de navires marchands et de privilèges commerciaux spécifiques mettent en lumière des liens jusqu’alors inconnus entre les différents acteurs économiques, ouvrant ainsi de nouvelles perspectives sur le développement du commerce à longue distance dans le sud de la France au Moyen Âge.
The book examines how the integration of local merchants in the south of France contributed to the commercial expansion of the cities of Marseille and Montpellier in the 12th and 13th centuries. The origin of the flourishing long-distance trade is not sought in the establishment of the Crusader states in the East, but instead is explored at its roots, the local trade cycles in the hinterland of the port cities. The book is built around micro-historical sketches about specific merchant families, merchant ships and trade privileges, thus revealing unknown connections and new perspectives. Mediterranean trade is described from the perspective of inland merchants, and trade with the Levant is seen from the perspective of Provençal and Catalan merchants who traded through foreign financial centres and under foreign flags. The book explores how the hinterland made the long-distance trade of Marseille and Montpellier possible in the first place by providing goods, capital and manpower.
Heidelberger Jahrbücher Online: Bd. 6: Intelligenz – Theoretische Grundlagen und praktische Anwendungen
In dem von Rainer Matthias Holm-Hadulla, Joachim Funke und Michael Wink herausgegebenen Band zum Thema „Intelligenz“ behandeln Wissenschaftler*innen aus verschiedenen Disziplinen — von Mathematik, Biologie, Medizin und Psychologie bis zur Kultur, Ökonomie und Politik — eine Vielzahl aktueller Themen und suchen nach interdisziplinären Lösungen.
Facilitating Cross-Border Family Life – Towards a Common European Understanding: EUFams II and Beyond
This volume constitutes the final study of EUFams II, a research project on European family and succession law funded by the European Commission. Its contributors present historical developments, discuss the status quo, and draw the lines along which European family and succession law may develop in the near future. The volume endeavors to inspire its readership and the scientific community at large to engage in further research along and across these lines.
Agonale Invektivität: Konstellationen und Dynamiken der Herabsetzung im italienischen und deutschen Humanismus
What does humanism mean, who is a humanist? Contemporaries clarified this not least through diatribes. Intellectuals who, since the middle of the fourteenth century, have regarded rhetoric as the most noble method of promoting virtue, searching for truth and knowledge of God, saw mutual personal degradation as the means of asserting their positions.
Une clôture hermétique? Isolement régulier et intérêts séculiers au monastère Saint-Pierre de Lobbes, VIIe–XIVe siècle
Au Moyen Âge, les abbayes bénédictines justifiaient leur existence par leur isolement, prétention affirmée à travers, notamment, le topos du locus desertus montrant des saints fondateurs d’abbayes s’installer loin de toute civilisation. Or, pour subsister, les abbayes devaient retirer des biens ou des services de la société englobante (oblats, nourriture, protection…) et, en échange, en fournir d’autres (soutien politique, hospitalité…). Les monastères médiévaux étaient donc profondément intégrés dans la société tout en prétendant en être isolés. Ce paradoxe de la vie monastique est souvent utilisé dans les Ordensforschungen, bien plus rarement pour l’étude d’institutions spécifiques. Le présent ouvrage a pour objectif de confronter ce cadre théorique à la réalité vécue par les moines de l’abbaye Saint-Pierre de Lobbes (Hainaut, Belgique), du viie siècle, date de sa fondation, jusqu’à la fin du xive.
In the Middle Ages, the very existence of Benedictine monasteries was based on their proclaimed isolation from the world, a tenet diametrically opposed to their means of subsistence. Indeed, in order to extract goods from society (oblates, food, protection…), abbeys had to provide tangible goods and services in exchange (political support, hospitality…); monasteries were deeply integrated into medieval society while claiming to be isolated from it. This paradox of monastic life is often referred to in the Ordenforschungen or study of the monastic orders, but it is rarely used when it comes to studying specific institutions. This book aims to test the validity of this theoretical framework against the reality as lived by the monks of the Abbey of St Peter of Lobbes (Hainault, Belgium), from its founding until the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In particular, it analyses the interactions between the abbey and its political and economic environment.
In academic research, princely summer residences are regarded as places of longing, where rulers sought to realize their dream of an earthly paradise and escape the constraints of courtly ceremonial. Traditionally, this research has been based in history of art. What music was made in the summer residences, and how it might have differed from that of the main residence, has not yet been systematically studied. The conference made a contribution to this by examining the musical life at selected European summer residences of the eighteenth century and relating it to one another. The individual contributions present the respective situations of the cultivation of music at selected summer residences in the German-speaking countries as well as in Italy, Spain, England, Sweden and Russia.